In general, a report of “victims trapped” should not cause any major changes in your initial operations. They may cause slight alterations – like where you take your line, which window you VES, etc. However your plans/SOGs should already be setup assuming there are persons trapped. When added information increases the likelihood of entrapment, we should be doing what we always do – just harder and faster!
Remember, all tasks work in support of each other on a fire. Abandoning one will reak havoc on the others. The results do not improve the victims chances, and put us at greater risk. I have seen many incidents quickly go south when everyone “loses their cool” after a report of entrapment. Things later water supply, ventilation, and fire attack are abandoned because we all think we’re just going to dash in and “save the baby”. When this happens we are often unsuccessful in our firefighting efforts, the victim usually perishes, and we frequently hurt firefighters due to our scatter-brained actions. By cutting corners we LOSE, and often then find out there wasn’t anyone trapped!
As was the case last night, reports of a victim do not mean there IS one. And no reported victims (or reports of “everyone’s out”) do not mean there ISN’T one. Deploy in response to conditions and always give any known OR unknown victim their best chance. Don’t guess on “survivability” from the front yard – you don’t know what you don’t know. Our job is to react to conditions, not guesses, and give them a chance. As I was once taught by a veteran truck officer, they are not out until our searches SAY they are out.
Posted by Nick Martin on Monday, June 29, 2015
Great job by Columbia Fire Department 2nd shift crews last night. They demonstrated the effectiveness of these thoughts and made a rapid knockdown alongside rapid searches.
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Truck Company | Posted on 29-06-2015| Posted in
In part one of “Check your Dance Card” we discussed a few items to take a look at before we enter the fire building and start our dance with the “beauty of fire.” In part 2, we will discuss a few more specifics that we should note as we enter the structure. Make no mistake, a constant review of this Dance Card is a must for all members… take mental notes of what you see. You’re going to want to come home from your latest “dance” and tell all your friends all about this “beauty.”
“Ok, let’s move” the boss said, after what seemed like an eternity to you. The reality, it was only mere seconds. We all know that reality is often suspended when you are out on the dimly lit dance floor. You, you’re an eager beaver, and chomping at the bit to get on with this next . Your Officer is more cautious; he’s been burned by this “beauty” before. He remembers the sting of her touch, especially if you are caught moving too quickly on the dance floor. He is trying to show you the patience required, but you are still rather wet behind the ears and excitable…
This “beauty of fire” doesn’t make it easy; she beckons you closer with her dancing flames and warm lustrous glow. Again, the Officer reels you back in…one more review before we hit the dance floor.
As you enter the fire building…
1. WHAT TYPE OF STAIRS SERVICE THE BUILDNG?
Generally we have 2 types of tread design (on the staircase steps) and 2 types of staircases. They are either “Open” (having no sides, walls or doors at the top or bottom) or “Enclosed” (having sides, walls and doors at the top and bottom). Open tread and open staircases allow the passage of smoke, heat and fire to the floors above and are not friendly to our operation. Enclosed steps and enclosed staircases reduce the chances of fire spread in the building (if the doors are to remain in the closed position). It may be wise to announce the style and type of stairs to other units as they arrive, so that they know what to expect. This is of particular importance when in larger multiple dwellings or garden apartments and there are isolated, wing, or multiple staircases that serve specific lines of apartments (i.e. do not transverse the entire building). “Ladder X to Command; we have enclosed wing stairs, we will be using the A wing stairs to reach the fire apartment.”
2. IS THERE A WELL HOLE TO USE FOR THE STRETCH
The presence of a “Well Hole” the space created between the landing section of the stairs and the run of the steps themselves can be utilized for quick hoseline advancement. It must be rehearsed prior with the Engine Co. to achieve maximum effect. It reduces the amount of hose needed to be humped up the treads of the steps and around each newel post (i.e. 1-50’ length can travel vertically 5 floors in the well versus 1 length per floor if going up and around each set of steps, newel posts and associated landings). “Engine 22 to members, there is a well” should be enough to let the members know.
3. HOW MANY APARTMENTS ON THE FLOOR
A quick stop on the floor below can get you a lay of the land. If you bypassed the lobby and forgot to count mailboxes, count the number and note location of the apartments that you see. Remember that depending of the way the stairs run (scissor, return etc), they may be slight variations in the layout when you get on the fire floor.
4. VERIFY FIRE FLOOR AND APARTMENT NUMBER/LETTER
What may have appeared to be a fire on the 3rd floor from the street may turn out to on the second floor depending on the buildings configuration as it relates to the street level. Some buildings have lobby entrances that are raised above street level, which may change your initial fire floor notifications. Verify the fire floor and announce the apartment number or letter over the air, so that those who may be going above can pinpoint the direction they need to head.
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Company News, Engine Company, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, Tips & Skills, training-development, training-fire-rescue-topics, Truck Company, Uncategorized | Posted on 22-02-2012| Posted in
**This week we are featuring a short run-down of each of the programs that our staff will be presenting at this year’s FDIC in Indianapolis**
Tuesday (Pre-Conf Workshop, 130p-530p) – 25 to Survive
25 to Survive
TT’s Lt. Mitchell and Capt. Shaw will co-present thier flagship program, 25 to Survive: The Residential Building Fire. This program highlights 25 critical areas that present themselves to operating forces at the number one fireground killer of civilians and firefighters alike. They will present this engaging, interactive presentation will focus on pre-incident, operations and post incident operations. They will give you street smart tips and take home drills to make yourself and your fire company better prepared at the next residential fire you respond to.
Lieutenant Douglas J.Mitchell Jr., Fire Department of New York and Captain Daniel D. Shaw, Fairfax County Fire & Rescue:
Course Summary: More firefighters are seriously injured and killed while operating at residential building fires than at any other fire we encounter. This dynamic and interactive lecture program will address 25 critical firefighting errors and issues common to the residential building. Learn sound tips and take home practical drills to address and correct errors at residential fires. Topics include combat-ready attitude, leadership techniques, SCBA confidence, overcoming building construction features (setbacks, long stretches), communication failures on the fireground, developing and delivering sound and accurate on-scene reports, coordinated ventilation, and more.
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Posted by administration-leadership, Blog, Combat Ready, command-leadership, Company News, Engine Company, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, Incident Command, line-of-duty, RIT / Survival, technology-communications, Tips & Skills, Truck Company, Upcoming Classes | Posted on 08-02-2012| Posted in
I can be a pretty skeptical guy when it comes to new studies and ideas in the fire service. That’s because it seems that lately our profession tries to solve “hands-on problems” with fancy new catch-phrases rather than firefighting skill. So when I read and watched the recently released “Impact of Ventilation on Fire Behavior in Legacy and Contemporary Residential Construction” released by Underwriter’s Laboratories I was on watch for what “zany solution” they were going to have for our “modern fire problem”. I was pleasantly surprised.
The study was released in December 2010 and I’ve heard quite a bit about it in the background of the fire service. This study has been referenced in a lot of circles recently. One “fire chief” tried to even use it to say we shouldn’t fight fires interior anymore (he must’ve not read the same piece I read). Not wanting to remain uninformed, I took a look… For all those who don’t like reading 400 page reports, I suffered for you. And here’s the FIREMAN’s version:
The study compared a series of residential fires in a 50’s-60’s construction style 1-story house of 1,200 square feet with a “modern” 3,200 square foot 2 story house. These are those new houses we hear about being so different in “today’s fires”, referenced by many who advocate we completely change our approach to firefighting.
Now I was not one of the scientists on the study, but I did look at it fairly closely and here are my take home thoughts on what it means for fighting fires in “today’s fires”:
- Coordinate ventilation with hoseline advancement, including forcing doors that feed the fire area.
- Get a hoseline on the seat of the fire quick.
- VES is a great technique.
- Closing interior doors saves civilians and firefighters.
- No smoke showing means NOTHING.
That’s it? Yeah – pretty much, at least from my perspective. Now there’s a lot of “why” that supports those conclusions. But what shocked me there is – did you hear anything NEW? I didn’t. No new safety vests, no blitz-fires, no buzz terms. Coordinate engine & truck work, get a line in place fast, and use good techniques to isolate and rescue. Sounds like the same things the “old school” fire service has preached for decades!
So what’s the problem?
The problem is the same thing I started this article with: these days we’d rather get a new colored vest, or practice taking blood pressures, or use some fancy multi-syllable phrase than do what this study supports: GET GOOD AT OFFENSIVE FIREFIGHTING. What do I mean? Here are some buzz-words I think we ought to be practicing, and this fancy 400-page study supports:
– “Running Hoselines” – that’s a geographical term in my area for stretching and operating interior attack lines. How often to your firefighters pull lines? I’d bet you many firefighters haven’t pulled a line off in a “non-parking-lot” scenario in the past year. THAT’S A BREAD & BUTTER SKILL! Do they just know the crossly or can they extend and adapt to various scenarios with the precision of a offensive football line under the 2-minute warning? What is your fire department’s benchmark time for: from arrival having to firefighters stretch a 1.75″ line to the front door and be masked up and ready to enter the fire area? Based on a survey of YouTube I don’t think many departments have ANY such benchmark. This study says you have between 100 and 200 seconds to get water on the fire after ventilation occurs. That means you ventilating, or the fire ventilating the windows for you. How good are your back up firefighters? How well do you chase kinks? Poor performance with either of those will drastically delay your fire attack and your flow.
|You have 100-200 seconds after ventilation to put the fire out or suffer rapid fire growth.|
– “Coordinated Ventilation” – a concept that many departments struggle with. This was a no-brainer “back in the day”. We need to spend more time training on coordinating the location and timing of ventilation. This study clearly showed the impact of ventilating in the wrong time or in the wrong place. Ventilation should be timed with the knowledge that you only have 100-200 seconds after to get water on the fire before the fire will rapidly grow. The best way we can do this is “run scenarios”. Look at fire pictures with your crew. Where would you ventilate? When? What would be the challenges? How about coordinating with the line? You can just wait and see what happens when you get a fire, or you can take a few minutes to TALK FIRE and PREPARE so you’ll KNOW what’s going to happen.
– “Vent, Enter, Search” – this study also clearly showed that these fires were survivable for civilians who were laying on the floor in just about every room of the house except for the fire room. Closing the door made things even better. Keeping this in mind, along with the rapid growth of fire if water is not supplied, further supports the efficiency of Vent, Enter, Search technique in rescuing civilians. Particularly where a larger square foot home delays searches done with the conventional “left right” patterns. Some advocate it should be “Vent, Enter, Isolate, Search” – maybe, but when I first learned VES, and every time I’ve taught it, closing the door has ALWAYS been the first action after you enter. Maybe some people were just teaching it wrong…
– “Isolate and flow water” – In trouble? Either get out, isolate yourself (close a door), or flow water. This study supports the tenability of firefighters when we knock down fire with a hoseline or isolate ourselves from the fire until the fire is knocked or we can obtain an exit.
– “Nothing Showing Means Nothing” – Among others, I’ve said it for years. Three of the worst fires of my career started out as “nothing showing”. That’s when everyone let’s their guard down, doesn’t want to lay lines, leaves their tools behind, and moves slow. When you have fire showing – you know its a fire. When you have nothing showing – THE FIRE WILL CATCH YOU OFF GUARD. This study reinforces that with our modern construction, it is quite likely that a good fire will show nothing to the outside until it is ventilated. KEEP YOUR GUARD UP – IT’S THE FIRE OF YOUR CAREER UNTIL PROVEN OTHERWISE.
There’s a lot more to it than that, and if you’ve got about an hour the video on it is worth watching. But the take home here is NOT that we need to re-invent the fire service. It seems to me that often we’d rather float lofty ideas in the air conditioning then get out there and WORK at improving our bread & butter firefighting skills. Not running much fire? The need is even greater. We need to go back to practicing the tried & true skills of coordinated engine/truck work, rapid hoseline advancement, and targeted search. Stop creating fancy buzz terms and get out their and train. Think fire, talk fire, run through scenarios. Stay sharp. Stay COMBAT READY.
Referenced Study information:
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Engine Company, Truck Company | Posted on 29-11-2011| Posted in
Among other things, at a fire a good truck company makes a lot of additional egress points, searches, and removes any victims. Ok, so the truck has forced multiple doors, placed the aerial, has portbale ladders up, and has made windows into doors. Now we’ve found a victim. How are we bringing that victim out?
“I Have Five Little Rats” is a useful mnemonic for remembering the order of preference in our removal options – under most circumstances.
- I – Interior Stairs. The interior steps under many circumstances are the fastest and safest means of removal. They are often the way we came in and we can’t really fall off of them. However fire conditions, the victims location, or the location of operating members may make the steps less preferable, or impossible, at some fires.
- H – Horizontal Exits. Removing the victim to another wing of the building, into a tower ladder bucket, etc.
- F – Fire Escapes. Fire escapes seem like a great idea until we consider that they have been on the outside of the building for quite a while and we have no idea how well they’ve been maintained – they’re structural integrity could be in question, especially when we add a victim to the FF’s weight. In addition, they’re usually quite narrow, making movement of the FF and victim difficult.
- L – Ladders. Civilians are not good with ladders. Conscious or unconscious, removing a civilian via the aerial or portable ladder will be a difficult and dangerous process for both parties.
- R – Rope. Rope rescues from the roof or an upper floor are extremely dangerous and require immense coordination and practice. In rare scenarios, this may be the only way to save our victim and we should be practice and prepared to execute this skill, but only as a last resort.
This is just another topic that is something our shift/company/crew should discuss BEFORE the fire. Perhaps this concept might need special modification to fit your department’s staffing, operations, or response area. Let us know your thoughts and what YOUR plan is for removing the victim.
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, Truck Company | Posted on 16-06-2011| Posted in
My colleagues and I at Traditions Training, LLC are very happy to be a part of this “blogger network” with Fire Engineering. I am hoping that this new blog will come out ok, as I am still adjusting to the format on the new FE site.
Ok, here we go… Elder Statesman Henry Clay once said “statistics are no substitute for judgement” and I wholeheartedly agree. In fact I really hate statistics (math was my worst subject in school).
Regardless of where you work or volunteer, it seems that no department has been able to shake the cutbacks and lack of support that we are facing today. Numbers, numbers, numbers…we have seen the numbers come to bite us, many times its “stats” thrown in our faces. City & Town Managers say “Do more with less, and when you are done with that…next year do more with even less.” Stats have been used to close fire companies, reduce staffing etc, etc, etc.
The bottom line with statistics, as Henry Clay said, is that good judgement should always outweigh what the numbers might lead you to believe. There is no more relevant field for this than in the public safety profession… seconds can be the difference life or death. Let’s not beat around the bush, we know that “numbers” , be it measured in seconds of time or reductions in staffing can in-fact, take civilian and firefighters lives.
For a change, let’s use the numbers in this outline to help ourselves! I saw the statistics in the photo (above) come across my desk a few months ago. They encompass nearly 20 years worth of compiled data from the FDNY Safety Command. It provides data to key mayday stats from actual incidents. If you look closely, the numbers tell a story. For once, let’s use some stats to help us prepare to be able to save our own.
These numbers are statistical averages, an inventory of the greatest frequency of events encountered from Mayday incidents. Now, I know that we need to prepare for all types of RIT/FAST scenarios (even for those not listed or those that may happen infrequently, such as FF removal from below grade & above grade etc.). When I look at this document, I see a template to be sure that we have “nailed down the essentials” and have those RIT/FAST skills mastered, based on the frequency of them occurring at a Mayday event.
The “take home” points that I see in the document:
~ Most Maydays called near the 20 minute marker:
~Think of what happens at the 20 minute mark? Usually it’s one of two things right? Either the searches are done and fire is largely extinguished and we are mopping up **or** we are fighting an advancing fire, possibly changing operational modes and adding additional alarms. Incident Commanders should have 10-minute timers (either keyed to them from dispatch or kept on a clock @ the command post) this should keep them aware of the passing of time. Inside crews must be certain to check their air supply and NOT rely on the low air alarm to keep them out of trouble (remember it may take you more time to get out than it took you to get in!)
~1st Alarm Units removed most downed FF’s:
~While we absolutely need a well trained and effective RIT/FAST Team at the ready – While operating, be aware of the other companies at the fire with you and those working around you (i.e. on the floor above and below!). While it is imperative that you keep doing your job (i.e. operating the hoseline) if a mayday is called, you just may be the closest unit to the downed member! Always, Always Be Aware!
~Downed FF Positioning/Removal:
~Downed FF’s will be most likely found “out of air” (practice with your RIT/FAST pack connecting the UAC *with gloved hands!) and laying prone on the ground. There is also 50/50 shot of them having their SCBA facepieces off (practice putting a facepiece from your RIT/FAST pack on a downed FF in the dark with your gloves on!). FF’s will be most likely need to be dragged horizontally and have you can almost guarantee that thier gear will be torn in the process (practice converting the SCBA straps into to a harness, and if you have a personal harness on your pants… take the hook out and pass it thru the SCBA shoulder straps to “marry” the top half of the FF to the bottom half..it will help keep all the parts together and will help in moving the downed member) ** Stay tuned for a future blog post showing that evolution.
Use the stats in the document to your advantage. Let the numbers work for us for a change. Let us be prepared in all situations, but armed with these “numbers,” we can now form the remedies for the situations that we may face most frequently. Keep yourself and your troops “Combat Ready”.
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Engine Company, fire-rescue-topics, firefighter-safety-health, firefighting-operations, fires, RIT / Survival, Tips & Skills, Training Resources, Truck Company | Posted on 08-04-2011| Posted in
This weekend TT instructors Nick Martin (DCFD/KVFD), Scott Kraut (FFxFD), Chris Birch (DCFD), and Roger Steger (BCFD/KVFD) traveled south to Bedford County, Virginia. We were being brought in to do some RIT training with the 3 departments in the county that had primary responsibilities for RIT – Bedford FD, Forest FD, and Stewartsville FD.
Class focused on two simple sets of rules.
The primary goal of the RIT should be to:
- Locate the downed firefighter.
- Keep the downed firefighter on continuous air.
- Keep the fire off the downed firefighter.
Most operational LODD’s result from asphyxia first and burns second. The goal of the initial team is to create a protective envelope around the downed firefighter. If you keep the firefighter on air and the fire away, you can work on solving any additional challenges such as collapse, etc…
Our second rule was:
Most successful rescues of firefighters are a combination of:
- Excellent basic firefighting skills.
- Basic tools and equipment.
- Ingenious, out of the box thinking.
- Communication, problem-solving, and teamwork.
There is not a one-size fits-all tool you can buy and throw on the rig to solve your RIT problems. Scenarios are often unique and often highlight a situation we hadn’t thought of until after it occurred. To be prepared we must first be excellent at fighting fire and PREVENTING the RIT deployment and second we must be problem-solvers with many “tools in our toolboxes” from which we can pull and generate a solution.
Class on Saturday started with a 4-hour seminar on RIT essentials and team formation. In the afternoon we worked on practical skills focusing on:
- locating the firefighter and use of search-rope kits
- troubleshooting and resolving SCBA emergencies
- packaging and moving the downed firefighter
Sunday was entirely hands-on scenarios. We demonstrated the reality that a 4 firefighter RIT is NOT likely to last long enough to complete an entire rescue. Students overcame scenarios involving missing firefighters, a catastrophic floor collapse, burned through stairs with members trapped above, and firefighters through a hole into the basement, among others. The staff of TT was constantly impressed at the skill, ability, and attitudes of the members from Bedford County. All scenarios were successful and much was learned by both students and instructors.
What was the last RIT training you did? Was it realistic? Was it based on the rules above? Remember – no one is coming in for us, but US. Stay COMBAT READY.
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Posted by Blog, Combat Ready, Company News, RIT / Survival, videos | Posted on 07-04-2011| Posted in
Traditions Training, LLC had another great month in February 2011. We conducted several extremely successful hands on and lecture programs. We had instructors write articles in this months editions of Urban Firefighter and Fire Engineering Magazines. All the while, we continued to publish new tips/tricks on our blogs and Facebook pages…
March is now upon us and Fire Engineering’s FDIC (Fire Departments Instructor Conference) is less than 3 weeks away. Our instructors have been tirelessly polishing their presentations and the Traditions Training, LLC staff is set to be entrenched there for most of the week! If you are going to be at FDIC, come out to take a listen to what you have been reading here on our FB page and Blog, you will not be disappointed! We are certainly privileged to be presenting several times throughout the week on various fireground topics.
Keep up with TT’s facebook page, as we will be trying to attend various social events throughout the week! Let us know where you are going to be, we would love to join in sharing the great Tradition’s of our profession at FDIC!
Monday, March 21, 8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
Firefighter Nicholas A. Martin, District of Columbia Fire Department
Basement fires are among the most hazardous incidents that you respond to, primarily because of delayed recognition and limited access. This workshop will discuss techniques for size-up and attack of basement fires, including considerations for the truck company, engine company, and incident commander. Learn about the hazards, size-up techniques to improve early recognition of the fire’s actual location, various methods of fire attack, the construction and contents of typical basements with the corresponding effects on fire behavior, structural stability, and tactical options.
Monday, March 21, 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.
25 to Survive: Residential Building Fires
Captain Daniel D. Shaw, Fairfax County (VA) Fire & Rescue; and Lieutenant Douglas J. Mitchell Jr., Fire Department of New York
More firefighters are seriously injured and killed while operating at residential building fires than at other building fires. This dynamic and interactive program will address 25 critical firefighting issues common to the residential building. The program will discuss the areas of preparation, response, and operations, all vital to successfully mitigating the event. Students will learn “street-smart” tips, tactics, and practical company drills to remedy the common errors encountered and allow the student to bring back more than just what they heard.
Wednesday, March 23, 2011
10:30 AM-12:15 PM
Modern Engine Company Essentials
Captain Dan Shaw, Fairfax County (VA) Fire & Rescue & Lieutenant Douglas J. Mitchell Jr., Fire Department of New York
This interactive program discusses the most vital unit on the fireground, the engine company. Learn how changes in building construction, staffing levels, and new equipment have affected the job of getting water to the fire. Students will learn sound tactics and techniques for preparing and operating the modern-day engine company.
Friday, March 25, 2011
8:30 AM-10:15 AM
Effective Use of Tower Ladders in Tactical Operations
Firefighter Nicholas A. Martin, District of Columbia Fire Department
Proper use of tower ladders in various fireground scenarios is presented. Topics include proper placement and deployment of aerial apparatus; integrating the aerial into the fireground effectively; and using the aerial in various scenarios such as gaining access, rescues, using elevated master streams, and performing technical rescue. Rear-mount and midmount devices and “ladder tower” vs. “tower ladder” are also discussed.
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Posted by administration-leadership, Blog, Combat Ready, command-leadership, Commentary, Company News, Engine Company, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, fires, In the News, in-the-line-of-duty, Tips & Skills, Training Resources, training-development, Truck Company, Uncategorized, Upcoming Classes | Posted on 01-03-2011| Posted in
TT Instructor Joe Brown created this video of operations at a first floor fire last tour with a civilian rescued from the second floor. While some of the video is dark, what should be emphasized in this situation is the communication between crews.
The rescue of a civilian is an exciting event. Our primary mission is to save lives and when a victim is located it can tend to draw others away from their tasks. You will notice in this video that when the victim is located, assistacne is given to the victim removal where needed but the other tasks continue, and when the victim is removed everyone get’s back to work. We must remember that a successful fireground results from a coordinated series of events – everyone has a job to do and must do it. If someone drops their task, the entire fireground falls apart.
At present, all accounts are that the victim is hospitalized and will make a full recovery. Job well done to the members of DCFD Engine 30 / Truck 17, Platoon #1!
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Posted by Blog, command-leadership, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, fires, news, rescues, technology-communications, Tips & Skills, training-development, training-fire-rescue-topics, Truck Company, videos | Posted on 11-08-2010| Posted in
My trash gets picked up on Tuesdays and Fridays. Like fires, it’s a little variable – sometimes they come early, sometimes late. Sometimes I have a big load, sometimes little, occasionally I throw them off with recyclables. After a birthday get-together this past week I had a particularly large pile of trash. A big job for the fellas! I was sure they’d be excited… However I was dismayed when the trash truck rounded the corner and none of the trashmen were yelling: “big pile! we gotta job! we’re gonna need more gloves! get the crusher ready! HE’S GOT CARDBOARD BOXES!!!!” They’re trashmen. They expect to pick up trash. We’re firefighters, we should expect to go to fires.
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