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People Trapped? Don’t Panic – Do Your JOB!

In general, a report of “victims trapped” should not cause any major changes in your initial operations. They may cause slight alterations – like where you take your line, which window you VES, etc.  However your plans/SOGs should already be setup assuming there are persons trapped. When added information increases the likelihood of entrapment, we should be doing what we always do – just harder and faster!

Remember, all tasks work in support of each other on a fire. Abandoning one will reak havoc on the others. The results do not improve the victims chances, and put us at greater risk. I have seen many incidents quickly go south when everyone “loses their cool” after a report of entrapment. Things later water supply, ventilation, and fire attack are abandoned because we all think we’re just going to dash in and “save the baby”. When this happens we are often unsuccessful in our firefighting efforts, the victim usually perishes, and we frequently hurt firefighters due to our scatter-brained actions. By cutting corners we LOSE, and often then find out there wasn’t anyone trapped! 

As was the case last night, reports of a victim do not mean there IS one. And no reported victims (or reports of “everyone’s out”) do not mean there ISN’T one. Deploy in response to conditions and always give any known OR unknown victim their best chance. Don’t guess on “survivability” from the front yard – you don’t know what you don’t know.  Our job is to react to conditions, not guesses, and give them a chance. As I was once taught by a veteran truck officer, they are not out until our searches SAY they are out.

Posted by Nick Martin on Monday, June 29, 2015

Great job by Columbia Fire Department 2nd shift crews last night. They demonstrated the effectiveness of these thoughts and made a rapid knockdown alongside rapid searches.

#CombatReady

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Truck Company | Posted on 29-06-2015

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Check your Dance Card Part 3: “The Dance”

It’s on…

 

We have been leading up to our dance with this “beauty of fire” in both Part 1 and Part 2 of “Check your Dance Card.”  Feel free to go back and take notes as we journey closer and closer to this ‘beauty.’  We have discussed cues and clues to help us not get burned, things to note… both outside the fire building and on our way up to the fire floor.

 

Now is the moment we have been waiting for.  It is time to dance… this “beauty” can wait no more, it’s time to find her.  Excited?  Yes, but we have prepared, practiced and anticipated this event for some time now.  This isn’t the time to be posting about it on FB or squeezing 140 characters out on twitter… we can do that later.

 

We need to make our move out onto the dance floor and get into the fire apartment.  As we move in with cautious rapidity… keen up your senses.

 

LOOK…

 

LISTEN…

 

FEEL…

 

LOOK:  What are we looking for?  We are looking to find the seat of the fire and also locate trapped civilians.  With obscured vision from smoke conditions in the apartment, we may have had an opportunity to get the layout of it from a quick glance on the floor below or may get information down the road from those who may go to the apt. above.  Inside, look for layout clues, sometimes smoke movement causes a brief layer of clean air to develop low… you may just be able to make out the room/hallway and/or see that lovely ‘glow’ in the distance.  Do not get tunnel vision or be put blinders on, keep your head on a swivel, up/down/left/right.  Thermal imagers can assist us, but we must know what we are looking for … they are a tool to ASSIST us in the search.  Electronics are fallible, our preparedness, training and search techniques should not be.

 

LISTEN:  We never seem to listen close enough, often it’s the sense we often shut off when under stress.  We must be diligent, occasionally even force ourselves to stop and listen.  Use a 30-10 or similar technique (search 30 seconds, then pause, remain quiet for 10). Listen to whats going on around you.  You may hear a human life, the crackling fire, hoseline movement, water flowing, windows breaking, etc.  Listen to what is going on around you, they should be familiar sounds.  Don’t forget the ‘2 ears, 1 mouth’ saying…

 

FEEL:  On the dance floor, the fire apartment… we are covered head to toe in PPE.  As such, this is the way we must train ourselves to ‘feel.’  We must adapt ourselves to recognize clues in this encapsulated environment.  Residential recognition…with gloved hands take a second to feel the flooring you are on (tile, carpet, wood), feel and decipher the furnishings of each room you pass through.  Using the inferred info gathered from what you feel, you may have a better idea of where you are operating.  For example, tile floor, cabinets, countertop (kitchen).  Another example, large radiator, couch, TV (possible exterior wall in living room).

 

Check your Dance Card.”

 

Your dance with this particular ‘beauty of fire’ is now over.  You have been a great student over these last 3 lessons, learning at each step… the steps building up to the next, closer and closer we came to the beauty.  Today we got our dance, yet we were prepared, practiced and had anticipated the outcome.

 

You leave the dance floor sweaty, exhausted but still wanting more.

 

Time to tweet and FB post this ‘beauty’ so that others can see what we did and didn’t do, to make us that much better at the next dance.  But please, be humble, be respectful and be aware that your dance only came from someone else’s tragic misfortune.

 

Part 2

http://doug-mitchell.blogspot.com/2012/02/check-your-dance-card-part-2-getting.html

Part 1

http://doug-mitchell.blogspot.com/2012/01/check-your-dance-card.html

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, firefighting-operations, Tips & Skills, Truck Company, Uncategorized | Posted on 04-01-2013

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Commercial Storefront FE: Don’t Just Break the Glass

These common doors may have a variety of seen or unseen reinforcements.

While it can safely be said that every response area in this country has unique challenges, the commercial storefront is one that is present in almost all areas.  Forcible entry into these buildings is not necessarily difficult, but present some unique considerations and thinking points.

Just break the glass.  That seems to be a lot of firefighter’s first thought on getting inside.  This simplistic approach will certainly create an opening from the outside to the inside, but not necessarily the way we want.  Consider the following:

  • It may not be glass.  In many areas it will be Plexiglas, lexan, plastic, or similar materials.
  • It may be reinforced by either impregnated or aftermarket “chicken wire”, have metal strips spaced across, or have other security measures to prevent you from getting in even if the glass is broken.
  • You still have to content with the crossbar or panic bar, which adds additional time and can be more difficult to remove than it looks.  You will likely end up having to contend with the scenario of eager FF’s wanting to crawl in under the panic bar – an obvious FF safety concern.
  • You will still have the lip of the door frame around the opening.  This will likely still contain glass shards that can easily rupture a hoseline.  It can also create a trip hazard that may delay rapid egress should conditions deteriorate.  This occurred in a similar scenario recently resulting in critical burn injuries to several firefighters who were unable to quickly exit when a “dog pile” occurred at the exit.

    Even the door is telling you not to try…

For all the discussion points on the potential hazards and pitfalls of “just breaking the glass”, probably the most compelling reason not to break the glass is just that if you have practice and plans in the proper techniques it is simply faster and easier to just open the door.  Take a look at the following videos:

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tHwIVuKUnKc&feature=player_embedded

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpPtmHjSqC8&feature=player_embedded

It’s easy to see that whether you want to cut the lock or go through-the-lock, either are quite fast and eliminate all of the possible problems of breaking the glass.  Consider these options next time you are presented with the glass commercial storefront.  Discuss this issue with your crew members and practice on the techniques for defeating the “Adams Rite Lock” both manually and with a saw.  Stay safe, and stay Combat Ready.

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, videos | Posted on 17-12-2012

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Learning Moments & A Forcible Entry Challenge

One of the things we always talk about regarding staying “combat ready” is using every opportunity as a learning/teaching moment.  We have an opportunity on every routine run to look at the buildings in our response area and size-up their challenges.  This allows us to think about solutions in advance.  The more of these ideas (tools) you have in your brain (toolbox) makes it more likely you’ll have the “right sized wrench” to fit the problem when you encounter it in stressful conditions during a fire.

During a medical run on the engine is exactly when we noticed these doors in an apartment building.  Neither the gate or the door is atypical for our area, but the combination of the two inside the building is unusual for us.  These gates are typically found on either the front or rear doors of many of our residences, but to find them inside an apartment building with enclosed stairs is unusual.  The gates themselves are not difficult to force, they are secured by a standard deadbolt with about a 1 throw.  Under normal circumstances, setting the adze above or below the lock and first crushing up and down then pulling the fork end out toward the lock side generally opens these fairly quickly.  However many firefighters still like to approach these with a saw, which obviously would not work well inside the building under fire conditions.

 

 What adds to the further uniqueness/challenge of this combination is the swing of the gates.  You can see in the pictures that in two of the apartments the lock side of the gate is against a right-angle wall.  Think for a moment about how this would impair your ability to force the door… You may think you would still be able to set the adze appropriately and crush/gap, however these gates have a strip of metal that covers the gap between the gate and the frame when closed.  This can be see in the picture below with the deadbolt extended.  That strip of metal is as wide as the throw of the deadbolt.  It’s a weak piece of metal, but to defeat it you would need to slide the adze in from the far side of the lock side of the gate, and in this scenario the wall would stop you from being successful.  Further, even if you got the adze into place, when you went to pull the fork end toward the lock side the Halligan would quickly contact the wall, reducing your leverage and drastically increasing the amount of force it would take to open the door (as a result of moving the fulcrum).

So what would you do?  My approach would be the hinges.  I’ve found the hinges on these types of doors to consistently be a weak point.  There is usually enough space between the frame and gate to just place the adze enough without even striking the Halligan so that a gapping (up/down) force can be applied to the hinge.  This typically breaks the welds and maybe with a little outward pull on the fork the hinge is done.  Work from top to bottom, see the video below.

 httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yy_GkPpds6k&feature=youtu.be

Rocket science?  Absolutely not.  When you see this in plain daylight and have a clear moment to think about the challenges and solutions, the door’s weaknesses are easily found.  But this is the importance of taking the time after routine runs, during on-the-air inspections, or otherwise to have a teaching/learning moment.  Talk these ideas out with yourself, your crew.  The more time you spend preparing for the fire, the better you’ll perform at the fire.

 

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, Truck Company, videos | Posted on 12-12-2012

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Extending Leverage on Outward Doors

It’s common that residential buildings will feature mostly inward opening doors, while commercial buildings will feature more outward opening doors.  While the the technique for outward opening doors may be, I won’t say easier but more straightforward than an inward door, they may actually require a little more “force”.  Outward doors on commercial buildings are likely to be set in brick or concrete, consist of strong metal doors and frames, and may have multiple or higher security locking devices.

The “power position” on an outward door comes when you set the adze fully BEHIND the door.  It’s the same idea as wrapping your fingers around something fully, you’ll get the most pull.  Getting the adze behind the door gives you a few advantages:

  • 180-degrees of leverage, provided there are no obstacles.
  • In addition to pulling outward, you can work up and down using the adze to crush the door and reduce the depth the lock is set in it’s keeper.
  • You can perform several “tricks” to extend your leverage.

It is also important to set the adze FULLY behind the door – as deep as you can get it.  This moves the fulcrum closer to the door and makes causes the firefighter to do less work to exert more leverage.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9lHoUc31z0&list=UUe0LpTPMR6iXJW4LDLoMBDw&index=1&feature=plcp

There are several methods to extend leverage on an outward door, but one is well illustrated at this box alarm in Prince George’s County, MD.  In the rear of this commercial building, firefighters encounter a metal door in metal frame, set in brick with a couple locks.  The irons firefighter from TL-33 (Kentland VFD) has already properly set his adze fully behind the door but more leverage is needed.  A few things are worth noting here:

  • The irons FF does not “spin wheels” – after a few tries he quickly realizes that plan “A” isn’t working and that we need to try something else.
  • The irons FF does not panic or get frustrated, I’ve seen frustrated FF’s in this scenario pull the bar completely out of the door which of course is in no way helpful.
  • Note the fluid teamwork with minimal communication between the members of company 33 an 37 (Ritchie VFD).   Due to previous inter-departmental training, they know what to expect of each other.  The left hand knows what the right needs before it even asks.

Just like many forcible entry skills, this option is not available to you if you haven’t purchased the right equipment, prepared it properly, and trained on it -not just as an individual, but as a crew.  If your partner doesn’t know what to do your knowledge is useless.  We shouldn’t have to have a lesson at the fire door – we should be able to resort to what we’ve always trained on.

In forcible entry remember – we can’t do anything else until we get inside.  Keep your skills sharp, have multiple plans, and DON’T GIVE UP!

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, Truck Company | Posted on 15-10-2012

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Got Stickers?

Got Stickers?

 

Firefighters, absolutely love stickers and decals.  I know that you know what I am talking about, and… it’s ok.  It is absolutely fine to be proud of who you are as a firefighter, be you a career or volunteer member.  You should be proud of your fire company and your fire department. Affixing decals and stickers to your personal property is just one way for you to show that pride to others.  I’ve seen fire department decals not only on personal vehicles, but boats, golf clubs, I’ve even seen decals on coolers… and so on and so on.
I’ve also seen some sort of decal on almost every rig I have come across.  Some are big, some are small but they mean something to the members who put them there.  I’ve seen decals with company slogans and nicknames, department mascots, company patches, memorial decals, the stickers run the gamut.  While they all serve as reminders to the members, either in memory or to elicit a source of pride, but in aiding our functionality for fireground, eh…well the decals are really just for show.
Recently, I have taken notice of a few stickers and decals on rigs and placed on certain tools that are absolutely excellently placed for OUR increased safety, and will aid our operations on the fireground.  Now, I will certainly not take credit for inventing any of them, I’m just not that smart.  I just thought that they were great ideas and they can be incorporated into most companies and departments quickly, easily and relatively inexpensively.  A sticker, believe it or not may just save a life!
Take a good look at the lead picture above and those below, courtesy of my friend Joe Brown from firehouse pride (www.firehousepride.com).  Ladder and tool wraps can greatly increase visibility of such important landmarks on the fireground.  Also, they are great identifiers for your tools and equipment.
Another useful sticker found on fire apparatus that I have seen is this RIT/FAST one.  In reality the sticker isn’t for your members, they should know where all the equipment is on your rig… its is for everyone else!  You never know when an additions compliment of RIT/FAST supplies may be needed at an incident.  With this decals placement, there is no need to “compartment hunt” looking for the RIT/FAST pack or associated RIT/FAST tools.

Label your RIT/FAST compartment


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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, RIT / Survival, Tips & Skills, training-development, Truck Company, Uncategorized | Posted on 14-02-2012

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I Have Five Little Rats

Among other things, at a fire a good truck company makes a lot of additional egress points, searches, and removes any victims. Ok, so the truck has forced multiple doors, placed the aerial, has portbale ladders up, and has made windows into doors. Now we’ve found a victim. How are we bringing that victim out?

“I Have Five Little Rats” is a useful mnemonic for remembering the order of preference in our removal options – under most circumstances.

  • I – Interior Stairs. The interior steps under many circumstances are the fastest and safest means of removal. They are often the way we came in and we can’t really fall off of them. However fire conditions, the victims location, or the location of operating members may make the steps less preferable, or impossible, at some fires.
  • HHorizontal Exits. Removing the victim to another wing of the building, into a tower ladder bucket, etc.
  • F – Fire Escapes. Fire escapes seem like a great idea until we consider that they have been on the outside of the building for quite a while and we have no idea how well they’ve been maintained – they’re structural integrity could be in question, especially when we add a victim to the FF’s weight. In addition, they’re usually quite narrow, making movement of the FF and victim difficult.
  • L – Ladders. Civilians are not good with ladders. Conscious or unconscious, removing a civilian via the aerial or portable ladder will be a difficult and dangerous process for both parties.
  • R – Rope. Rope rescues from the roof or an upper floor are extremely dangerous and require immense coordination and practice. In rare scenarios, this may be the only way to save our victim and we should be practice and prepared to execute this skill, but only as a last resort.

This is just another topic that is something our shift/company/crew should discuss BEFORE the fire.  Perhaps this concept might need special modification to fit your department’s staffing, operations, or response area.  Let us know your thoughts and what YOUR plan is for removing the victim.

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, Truck Company | Posted on 16-06-2011

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Forcible Entry Success Story

NOTHING makes what we do more worthwhile than hearing back that information we passed on in our programs was put to use effectively in an operational scenario. There’s a lot of effort behind the scenes in what we do, but a story like this makes every second worthwhile:

“Howdy Fellas,

My name is Johnny Davidson. I work for the Round Rock FD in Texas. Back in April we had pleasure of attending a class put on by Nick and Danny. I’ve been to a lot of rescue course’s in my career and these guys along with Traditions Training stand among the best. So here’s my short story about forcing a door after attending their class.

A few weeks after the class we were called out to a medical alarm for an elderly person who pressed their alert button and the alarm company could not get a response from the victim. On arrival we discovered all the doors & windows were locked. Out of habit I grabbed the door spreader and went to the front door. After two attempts with the door spreader we had no success. I looked at the dead bolt and it hit me like a brick. I advised my firefighter to get the “irons” of our rig. As he was striking the door, I radio our dispatch and advised them we were attempting to force the door again. My firefighter then set Halligan and I began to strike it. It was like a hot knife thru butter. The door opened and we found our patient laying on the bedroom floor semi-conscious.

After checking my run notes it took 13 seconds to get thru the door using a version of the techniques learned from Traditions Training. Thanks for giving me another tool in the tool box of knowledge.

Be safe,

Johnny Davidson

Lieutenant Rsc3/B

Round Rock Fire Department”

Thanks you, Lt. Davidson, for sharing this story with us. And thank you to everyone out there who ever let us share a skill or piece of knowledge with you – PASS IT ALL ON!

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Tips & Skills, Truck Company | Posted on 23-05-2011

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Multiple Options are Key in Forcible Entry

Like many firefighters, I have witnessed someone at the door to the fire building repeatedly trying the same technique over and over with no success.  This is frustrating because, with the exception of some public service calls, we were not called to force the door but rather to handle the fire (or other emergency) on the other side of it.  All firefighters, regardless of position or assignment must maintain good forcible entry skills, because we can’t do our job until we get inside the door.

Over the years, forcible entry has become a speficic interest of mine.  I have had many great mentors on the topic and my own share of fireground screw ups, all of which taught me one very important fact about forcing doors of any kind:  YOU MUST HAVE MULTIPLE TECHNIQUES FOR WHEN PLAN “A” FAILS.

As an example, last month Danny Doyle and I were just outside Austin, TX working with the Round Rock Fire Department on truck company operations for the week.  Of course one of the skills was forcible entry.  Using their department’s door prop, each student forced the door numerous times.  Now each student forced the same door prop, which used the same stock of material, and forced it using the same approach.  Below is a picture of some of the metal “locks” that they forced.  What do you notice?  THEY ARE ALL DEFORMED DIFFERENTLY.

Know how you know how the door will respond? AFTER YOU'RE DONE.

It goes to show the point that 2 doors, made by the same company, installed by the same person on the same day, and locked in the same manner, will likely respond differently even when attacked with the same series of techniques.  This is just due to subtle variations in angle/placement of attack, force delivered, and probably the inherent slight variations in a piece of metal.

The take home here is that you can’t just have plan A, or just plan A & B.  You have to have C,D,E,F,G,H,I, et cetera.  Because when YOU’RE the one between the fire and the rest of the box alarm, ALL EYES ARE ON YOU and everyone is WAITING FOR YOU – it’s probably the most stressful spot on the fireground. It means we have to expect the unexpected – we have to be able to recognize when what we are doing is not working, and have another step to move onto.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11PofrV12yc

In our classes we teach “troubleshooting forcible entry”.  This video is a brief demonstration of one of the students forcing a troublesome door and working through a variety of steps in order to get the door in a pretty quick timeframe.  As a disclaimer, it it not an inclusive discussion of all the skill points and tips for an inward door.  I always say that there is a list of techniques and a list of tools, all possibilities to get us through the door.  The kicker is that the list is CONSTANTLY RE-ORDERED at each fire based on asking yourself:

  • What tools do I have available?
  • What manpower do I have available?
  • What I have I already tried?

The results of thinking those questions may take what was previously #22 on your list of preferences and move it to #1 for this fire, because for instance you are by yourself and only have a Halligan bar.

Remember forcible entry is NOT AT ALL about force, it’s all about technique.

If you’d like to break some doors, we have a combination Truck Company Ops and Forcible Entry Academy class coming up in Bensalem, PA in August.  Click here for information and registration. Or we’d be happy to come to you, just email us.

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Posted by | Posted in Blog, Combat Ready, Tips & Skills, Truck Company | Posted on 04-05-2011

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JOIN US AT FDIC 2011!

Traditions Training, LLC had another great month in February 2011.  We conducted several extremely successful hands on and lecture programs.  We had instructors write articles in this months editions of Urban Firefighter and Fire Engineering Magazines.  All the while, we continued to publish new tips/tricks on our blogs and Facebook pages…

March is now upon us and Fire Engineering’s FDIC (Fire Departments Instructor Conference) is less than 3 weeks away.  Our instructors have been tirelessly polishing their presentations and the Traditions Training, LLC staff is set to be entrenched there for most of the week!   If you are going to be at FDIC, come out to take a listen to what you have been reading here on our FB page and Blog, you will not be disappointed!  We are certainly privileged to be presenting several times throughout the week on various fireground topics.

Keep up with TT’s facebook page, as we will be trying to attend various social events throughout the week!  Let us know where you are going to be, we would love to join in sharing the great Tradition’s of our profession at FDIC!

WORKSHOPS

Monday, March 21, 8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.

4-Hour Workshop:

Basement Fires
Firefighter Nicholas A. Martin, District of Columbia Fire Department
Basement fires are among the most hazardous incidents that you respond to, primarily because of delayed recognition and limited access. This workshop will discuss techniques for size-up and attack of basement fires, including considerations for the truck company, engine company, and incident commander. Learn about the hazards, size-up techniques to improve early recognition of the fire’s actual location, various methods of fire attack, the construction and contents of typical basements with the corresponding effects on fire behavior, structural stability, and tactical options.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Monday, March 21, 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.

8-Hour Workshops:

25 to Survive: Residential Building Fires
Captain Daniel D. Shaw, Fairfax County (VA) Fire & Rescue; and Lieutenant Douglas J. Mitchell Jr., Fire Department of New York
More firefighters are seriously injured and killed while operating at residential building fires than at other building fires. This dynamic and interactive program will address 25 critical firefighting issues common to the residential building. The program will discuss the areas of preparation, response, and operations, all vital to successfully mitigating the event. Students will learn “street-smart” tips, tactics, and practical company drills to remedy the common errors encountered and allow the student to bring back more than just what they heard.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Wednesday, March 23, 2011
10:30 AM-12:15 PM

Modern Engine Company Essentials
Captain Dan Shaw, Fairfax County (VA) Fire & Rescue & Lieutenant Douglas J. Mitchell Jr., Fire Department of New York
This interactive program discusses the most vital unit on the fireground, the engine company. Learn how changes in building construction, staffing levels, and new equipment have affected the job of getting water to the fire. Students will learn sound tactics and techniques for preparing and operating the modern-day engine company.
ALL LEVELS
Room 134-135

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Friday, March 25, 2011
8:30 AM-10:15 AM

Effective Use of Tower Ladders in Tactical Operations
Firefighter Nicholas A. Martin, District of Columbia Fire Department
Proper use of tower ladders in various fireground scenarios is presented. Topics include proper placement and deployment of aerial apparatus; integrating the aerial into the fireground effectively; and using the aerial in various scenarios such as gaining access, rescues, using elevated master streams, and performing technical rescue. Rear-mount and midmount devices and “ladder tower” vs. “tower ladder” are also discussed.
INTERMEDIATE
Room 238-239

CLICK HERE FOR THE FDIC PAGE WITH CLASS DESCRIPTIONS AND REGISTRATION!

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Posted by | Posted in administration-leadership, Blog, Combat Ready, command-leadership, Commentary, Company News, Engine Company, fire-rescue-topics, firefighting-operations, fires, In the News, in-the-line-of-duty, Tips & Skills, Training Resources, training-development, Truck Company, Uncategorized, Upcoming Classes | Posted on 01-03-2011